Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden to the west. to the south by Latvia east by Lake Peipus and Russia
The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2. The official language of the country is Estonian, and the second most spoken language is Finnish.
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from the Russian Empire in 1918 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
During World War II, Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the USSR as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's state continuity was preserved by the Estonian government-in-exile, which was recognized by much of the Western World throughout the Cold War. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of independence on 20 August 1991.
The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favorably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom. Furthermore it’s one of the world's most digitally advanced societies. In 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.
Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It is on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland in Harju County. From the 13th century until 1918 the city was known as Reval. Tallinn occupies an area of 159.2 km2 and has a population of 450.000 peoplle.
Tallinn, received it’s city rights in 1248, but the earliest human settlements date back 5,000 years. The initial claim over the land was laid by the Danes in 1219, after a successful raid of Lindanise led by Valdemar II of Denmark, followed by a period of alternating Scandinavian and German rule. Due to its strategic location, the city became a major trade hub, especially from the 14th to the 16th century, when it grew in importance as part of the Hanseatic League.
Tallinn's Old Town is one of the best preserved medieval cities in Europe and is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Tallinn is the major political, financial, cultural and educational center of Estonia. Often dubbed the Silicon Valley of Europe, it has the highest number of startups per person in Europe and is a birthplace of many international companies, including Skype.
The city is to house the headquarters of the European Union's IT agency. Providing to the global cybersecurity it is the home to the NATO Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world.
Tallinn receives 4.3 million visitors annually, a figure that has grown steadily over the past decade. Besides the old city town, the Seaplane Harbour also know as the Estonian Maritime Museum, the Tallinn Zoo, Kadriorg Park, and the Estonian Open Air Museum ar places you just must visit.